Tarigan (1990: 3-4) defines that speaking is a language skill that is developed in child life, which is produced by listening skill, and at that period speaking skill is learned.
In carrying out speaking, students face some difficulties. One of them is about language its self. In fact, most of students get difficulties to speak even though they have a lot of vocabularies and have written them well. The problems are afraid for students to make mistakes. Speaking is the productive skill. It could not be separated from listening. When we speak we produce the text and it should be meaningful. In the nature of communication, we can find the speaker, the listener, the message and the feedback. Speaking could not be separated from pronunciation as it encourages learners to learn the English sounds.
Clark and Clark (in Nunan, 1991: 23) said that speaking is fundamentally an instrument act. Speakers talk in order to have some effect on their listener. It is the result of teaching learning process. Students’ skill in conversation is core aspect in teaching speaking, It becomes vital aspect in language teaching learning success if language function as a system for expression meaning, as Nunan (1991: 39) states that the successful in speaking is measured through someone ability to carry out a conversation in the language. We confess that there are many proponent factors that influence teaching speaking success and there are many obstacle factors why it is not running well.
Brown (1994: 142) explain that a lists of speaking skill can be drawn up for the purpose to serve as a taxonomy of skills from which we will select one or several that will become objectives of an assessment task. The micro and macro- skills total roughly 16 objectives to asess in speaking are described. The micro-skills, to producing the smaller chunck of language such as phonemes, morphemes, words, collocations, fluency and phrasal units. The macro-skills imply the speaker’s focus on the larger elements: accuracy, discourse, style, cohesion, nonverbal communication, and strategic option as follows:
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a) Producing difference among English phonemes and allophonic variant.
b) Producing chunks of language of deferent length.
c) Producing English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions hythmic structure and intonation contours.
d) Producing reduced forms of words and phrases.
e) Using an adequate number of lexical units (words) to accomplish pragmatic purposes.
f) Producing fluent speech at different rates of delivery.
g) Monitoring one’s own oral productions and use various strategic devices-pause, fillers, self-corrections, backtracking-to enhance the clarity of the massage.
h) Using grammatical word classes (noun, verb, etc), system ( e.g, tense, agreement, and pluralization), word order, patterns, rules and elliptical forms.
i) Producing speech in natural constituents: in appropiate phrases, pause groups, breathe groups, and sentence constituents.
j) Expressing a particular meaning in different grammatical form.
k) Using cohesive devices in spoken discourse.
a) Accomplishing appropriately communicative function according to situations, participants, and goals.
b) Using appropriate styles, registers, implicative, redundancies, pragmatic conventions, conversation rules, floor keeping and yielding, interrupting, and other sociolinguistics features in face to face conversations.
c) Conveying links and connections between events and communicating such relations as focal and peripheral ideas, events and feelings, new information and given information, generalization and exemplification.
d) Conveying facial features, kinesis, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language.
e) Developing and using a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you.
Brown, H. Douglas. 1994. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Nunan, David. 1991. Language Teaching Methodology. UK: Prentice Hall International (Chapter two & three).
Tarigan, H. Guntur. 1990. Prinsip-prinsip Dasar Metode Riset Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Bahasa. Bandung: Angkasa.
Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching (2nd Ed.). Cambridge University Press.